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Upper Limb Prosthetics

Salford University runs the only undergraduate training course in prosthetics and orthotics in England and Wales and has a long-standing interest in upper limb prosthetics research.  Our research focuses on understanding why current powered prostheses are difficult to control, and developing improved solutions. The research dates back to the late 1990s when researchers here investigated the potential for using alternatives to the EMG signal for control purposes [1]. The problem was re-visited a few years later, leading to a collaboration with Professor Zheng’s group in Hong Kong [2]. Our more recent work has focused on the development of improved outcome measures [3, 4] and exploring the effects of poor socket fit on functionality in upper limb prosthesis users [5, 6].

We are currently recruiting for two research projects in the area (PhD student Andrew Hodrien, and Masters student Natalie Chinn). We welcome interest in these studies from people with limb loss, as well as the wider public and encourage you to read on!…


Current Research Studies

Real time use of prostheses in sport by adolescents

Natalie’s project focuses the use of upper limb prostheses during sporting activities among adolescents. For more details, please see here.


Factors associated with prosthesis embodiment

Andrew’s project focuses on understanding the occurrence and role of embodiment of a prosthesis. For more details, please see here.


Participate in future studies

If you would like to be contacted about involvement in future research studies related to upper limb loss, please sign up to our participant register. NB. This link will re-direct you to the main University website.


  1. Kenney, L.P., et al., Dimensional change in muscle as a control signal for powered upper limb prostheses: a pilot study. Med Eng Phys, 1999. 21(8): p. 589-597.
  2. Guo, J.Y., et al., A comparative evaluation of sonomyography, electromyography, force, and wrist angle in a discrete tracking task. Ultrasound Med Biol, 2011. 37(6): p. 884-91.
  3. Sobuh, M.M.D., Visuomotor behaviours during functional task performance with a myoelectric prosthesis, in Centre for Health Sciences Research. 2012, University of Salford.
  4. Sobuh, M.M., et al., Visuomotor behaviours when using a myoelectric prosthesis. J Neuroeng Rehabil, 2014. 11(1): p. 72.
  5. Head, J., The effect of socket movement and electrode contact on myoelectric prosthesis control during daily living activities, in Centre for Health Sciences Research. 2013, University of Salford.
  6. Head, J.S., et al., The use of an adjustable electrode housing unit to compare electrode alignment and contact variation with myoelectric prosthesis functionality: A pilot study. Prosthet Orthot Int, 2016. 40(1): p. 123-8.